Lesson Three. Analyzing “Intercepted Intelligence”

In this lesson, students analyze a primary source document: A Papal Bull issued by Pope Pius V in 1570, excommunicating Queen Elizabeth of England. After reading and analyzing the document, students, acting as diplomats, consider the ramifications of the text for their assigned empire.

After practicing document analysis as a class, student then choose one more primary source documents to read and complete a similar analysis.

Learning Objectives

Acting as Early Modern diplomats, students analyze a primary sources document from the Early Modern era.