• Lesson 3: The Monroe Doctrine: A Close Reading

    Thomas Jefferson played a role in the development of the so-called Monroe  Doctrine.

    To what events in United States and European foreign affairs does the Monroe Doctrine refer? What was the primary purpose behind the Monroe Doctrine?

  • Lesson 2: The Monroe Doctrine: President Monroe and the Independence Movement in South America

    An early portrait of James Monroe.

    How did conditions in Europe relate to the independence movements in South America? What reasons did President Monroe give for recognizing the independence movements in South America?

  • Lesson 2: The Federalist Defense of Diversity and "Extending the Sphere"

    Alexander Hamilton was pro-federalist, and authored a number of the papers.

    This lesson involves a detailed analysis of Alexander Hamilton’s and James Madison’s arguments in favor of the extended republic in The Federalist Nos. 9, 10 and 51. Students consider and understand in greater depth the problem of faction in a free republic and the difficulty of establishing a government that has enough power to fulfill its responsibilities, but which will not abuse that power and infringe on liberties of citizens.

  • Lesson 2: Chief Executives Compared: The Federalist Papers

    Gilbert Stuart portrait of George Washington

    The Founders were faced with a difficult decision—fix the flawed Articles of Confederation or develop a new system.

  • Lesson 3: Lost Hero: Was John Hanson Actually the First President?

    What important developments occurred during John Hanson’s term as the first full-term "President of the United States in Congress Assembled"? How did they affect the future of the U.S. and the office of the President?

  • Lesson 2: The Debate in Congress on the Sedition Act

    James Madison.

    What provisions in the U.S. Constitution are relevant to the debate over the Sedition Act? For this lesson, students will read brief excerpts from actual debates in the House of Representatives as the legislators attempted to work with the version of the bill "Punishment of Crime" (later known as the Sedition Act) already passed by the Senate.

  • Lesson 4: James Madison: Internal Improvements Balancing Act: Federal/State, Executive/Legislative

    James Madison.

    There was general agreement at the beginning of the 19th century that the U.S. would greatly benefit from some internal improvements of a national nature, such as a nationwide network of roads and canals. But how should the funds for such projects be raised? Who should be in control of the projects—that is, who should administer them?

  • Lesson 3: A Debate Against Slavery

    Anti-slavery poster form the 1850s

    Sometimes, people will fight to keep someone else from being treated poorly. Disagreement over slavery was central to the conflict between the North and the South. The nation was deeply divided.

  • Lesson 4: Thomas Jefferson on the Sedition Act

    Thomas Jefferson.

    What arguments were put forth in objection to the Sedition Act? Supporters of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison believed the Sedition Act was designed to repress political opposition to President John Adams and the Federalists.

  • Lesson 4: Life Before the Civil War

    Anti-slavery poster form the 1850s

    Students demonstrate their knowledge of life before the Civil War, with an emphasis on differences between the North and South.