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November 2008
  • Lesson 3: Hopi Traditional Dance and Song

    Created November 18, 2015
    Language of place: Hopi planting corn

    An exploration of the symbolism and imagery of corn and environment as manifested in Hopi song and traditional dances. Students analyze examples of historical and contemporary Hopi song and examine images of Hopi dance in order to expand cultural awareness.

  • Lesson 2. Hopi Poetry

    Created November 18, 2015
    Language of place: Hopi planting corn

    A close study of the poetry of contemporary Hopi artist and poet, Ramson Lomatewama. Students analyze Lomatewama’s masterful use of figurative language that creates a sense of place and describes his intimate relationship with the land and his experience of corn.

    Lesson Plans: Grades 3-5
    Curriculum Unit

    Language of Place: Hopi Place Names, Poetry, Traditional Dance and Song (3 Lessons)

    Created November 13, 2015



    The Unit


    Language of place: Hopi planting corn

    Hopi corn farmer by Kurt Lomawaima.

    Credit: Reproduced with permission, Crow Canyon Archaeological Center, all rights reserved.

    In my culture, we sing songs to show our happiness. We sing while we do our chores because songs seem to make the work go quickly and easily. We believe that when we sing songs, we are sharing our feelings of happiness with nature. Since the corn plants are also our children, we sing to the corn, too. Our elders tell us that when we sing to our corn children, we make them happy. When they are happy, they grow better.

    I was also taught that wherever there is singing, there is life. So when songs are sung, they too are born, just like people.

    — Ramson Lomatewama, poet

    In the summer of 2015, President Barack Obama made headlines when he officially returned the traditional Athabaskan name, Denali, to the largest mountain in North America. This act may have come as a surprise to some in this day and age when the importance of place names can be lost amid our modern technocracy. Many place names across our nation are imbued with history, culture, power, and significance that is often overlooked—but, through them the very essence and spirit of a place can be understood. Returning the name Denali to the mountain was a way of recognizing and honoring the relationship Native Alaskans have had with the mountain for centuries.

    This English Language Arts unit has students delve into the “language of place.” Through a careful study of various literary forms—place names, poetry, song and traditional dance—students can explore the landscape and culture of the Hopi Tribe from the southwestern United States. Through these forms of expression, student will have the opportunity to “read” the products of Hopi culture and engage in their rich cultural heritage through one of the Hopi’s most fundamental natural resources—corn!

    In Lesson 1, students will explore “Hopitutskwa,” the Hopi homeland, through maps and place names (using English translations) to make inferences about Hopi cultural relationships to landscape and place and uncover the importance of naming places in their own lives. Lesson 2 involves a study of contemporary Hopi poet, Ramson Lomatewama. Corn is a favorite subject of Lomatewama’s poetry, which is rich in figurative language describing the poet’s intimate relationship with the land. Lesson 3 has students experience traditional dance and song of the Hopi to further their understanding of this culture’s relationship to place.

    Guiding Questions

    • How do the Hopi use the language of place names, poetry, and song and traditional dance to demonstrate their cultural relationships between people and place?

    College and Career Readiness Standards

    CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.L.3: Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.

    CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.4.7 Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears.

    CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.4.5Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

    Explain the meaning of simple similes and metaphors in context.

    CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.4.9 Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e.g., opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (e.g., the quest) in stories, myths, and traditional literature from different cultures.


    The Hopi Tribe is a sovereign nation inhabiting over 1.5 million acres in northeastern Arizona. The tribe has a rich connection with the landscape, place, and environment, where most Hopi people call home. The Hopi name for their homeland is “Hopitutskwa.” Part of the Colorado Plateau, this region is known for its high deserts, scattered forests, stark mesas, deep canyons, as well as for the Grand Canyon. The Hopi have lived here for centuries.

    Today, some Hopi people continue the traditional subsistence practice of dry land farming, especially to grow specific corn varieties that are highly valued for their spiritual and practical significance. Each variety of corn is used to make different traditional foods. This challenging task—growing corn in a dry, unirrigated, short-growing season environment—requires an intimate knowledge of the land, environment, crops, weather, and the ecology of the high desert. A profound knowledge of the northeastern Arizona environment pervades Hopi culture and language. A rich reverence and respect for corn cultivation is apparent in the art, poetry, songs, celebrations and culture of the Hopi people. The metaphor “corn is life” or “corn is our children” is often used to explain the dynamic Hopi relationship with corn and dry land farming. 

    Taken together, three Hopi language forms: place names; poetry; and song and traditional dance; can be an avenue to explore the centuries-old cultural relationship the Hopi people have with their land and the process of growing corn. Such rich descriptions allow readers and listeners to imagine and envision the landscape and environment of Arizona’s high desert. The language of place found in the place names, poems, song, and dance expressions open a window into Hopi culture and act as a springboard for further explorations into diverse relationships to landscape, environment and place. 

    Extended background: See the following pdf’s for valuable contextual background information on these topics:

    • Hopi Homeland
    • Corn in Hopi Culture
      • Corn as Crop for Hopi
      • Corn as Art and Essence of Hopi
    • Hopi Agricultural Practices – Cultural and Spiritual Significance
    • Language of Place Forms in Hopi Culture:
      • Place Names
      • Poetry
      • Song and Traditional Dance

    Additional Resources

    National Museum of the American Indian (images of Hopi corn-based artifacts and art):

    The following websites sponsored by the Hopi Tribe, its affiliated educational partners, as well as the Crow Canyon Archaeological Center, offer additional information to supplement your classroom study of the Hopi and include images of villages, corn fields, and high desert environment: 

    The following picture books may be useful references:

    Gerald Dawavendewawas, The Butterfly Dance (Tales of the People). (New York: Abbeville Kids, 2001).

    Ramson Lomatewama, Songs to the Corn: A Hopi Poet Writes about Corn, illustrated by Jeffery Chapman. (Crystal Lake, IL: Rigby, 1997).


    Challenge students to research a poem or song that explores relationships between people and place.

    Note: The Poetry Foundation offers a poem sampler, Native American Poetry and Culture, which contains a selection of poets, poems, and articles—many deal with place and landscape. Here are some options from the Poetry Foundation sampler that may work with your students:

    Students should analyze the poem they have selected to write a short (3–5 paragraphs) explanation of the poem’s sense of place.

    In preparation for their writing, have them complete the following:

    1. Summarize the poem. What is it about? What is the setting? Who are the actors? 
    2. Provide some context about the poem. Who is the author? When was this written?  Where is the author from?
    3. Identify and explain examples of figurative language in the poem, quote it and explain what the author means or implies.
    4. Explain what is important to the author in this poem. What does he or she value? Why? How do you know?
    5. Discuss how the poet reflects his/her experience of place in the poem. How does the author express the place's significance? 
    6. Finally, ask students to sketch or draw the poem, carefully trying to capture the imagery or setting the author describes. 

    Creative Writing Option

    Ask students to write their own poetry or songs about a landscape or place that is important to them. Poems should include:

    • Vivid imagery: a sense of what it looks like, sounds like, feels like to be in that place
    • Connections between the poet (or other people) and the place described in the poem
    • Figurative language: similes, metaphors, and other types of figurative language to enrich the sense of place
    • Artwork: illustrations, sketches of the place or landscape being described

    Extending the Unit

    Option 1

    Hopi corn is available from heritage seed companies. Large and small grocery stores often sell products made from blue, white, yellow, and red corn. Challenge students to learn more about Hopi corn, its varieties, and the traditional (and nontraditional) foods that are made with heritage, native corn varieties. Cook at home or in class with recipes using blue corn. Taste-test many of the commercially available foods made from native corn varieties.

    Assignments could include:

    • Research and prepare a traditional Hopi dish using blue corn (many resources online for general searches of “Hopi blue corn recipes”);
    • Complete a scavenger hunt of your local grocery store to identify as many commercially available foods made from native corn varieties. Conduct a taste test with a few varieties and record your responses;
    • Cook with your class! The recipe for blue corn cakes is easy to follow and could be prepared in class. 

    Option 2

    Hopi culture has many elements that have continued or remained constant over time and many elements that have changed. Educational resources available on Crow Canyon Archaeological Center’s website support students as they research how Pueblo culture, which led in part to Hopi culture, has changed over the course of time.

    • Pueblo Indian History for Kids includes an online, interactive timeline where students can travel back in time before the Pueblo people of the southwest started farming. It guides students through the many changes Pueblo people, including the Hopi, have experienced.  
    • Video Perspectives on Pueblo History and Culture provides insight into the Pueblo peoples' oral tradition and examines how it helps keep their deep cultural heritage alive and shape their historical perspectives. The videos offer an archaeological understanding of Pueblo history, based on scientific method, including different—but complementary—perspectives.
    • People of the Mesa Verde Region delivers information on this region, which is divided among the three states—Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah—where more than 20,000 American Indians live today. The population of this region also consists of many non-Indians. All contribute to the complex fabric of community life, which reflects a unique blend of age-old traditions and 21st-century American culture.   



    The Lessons

    • Lesson 1. Hopi Place Names

      Created November 17, 2015
      Language of place: Hopi planting corn

      A guided exploration of “Hopitutskwa,” the Hopi homeland, through maps and place names. Using English translations, students make inferences about the Hopi cultural relationship to landscape and place. They examine regional place names of their own home communities and create personal maps by identifying and naming places of importance in their lives.

    • Lesson 2. Hopi Poetry

      Created November 18, 2015
      Language of place: Hopi planting corn

      A close study of the poetry of contemporary Hopi artist and poet, Ramson Lomatewama. Students analyze Lomatewama’s masterful use of figurative language that creates a sense of place and describes his intimate relationship with the land and his experience of corn.

    • Lesson 3: Hopi Traditional Dance and Song

      Created November 18, 2015
      Language of place: Hopi planting corn

      An exploration of the symbolism and imagery of corn and environment as manifested in Hopi song and traditional dances. Students analyze examples of historical and contemporary Hopi song and examine images of Hopi dance in order to expand cultural awareness.

    The Basics

    Grade Level


    Subject Areas
    • Literature and Language Arts > Genre > Common Core
    • History and Social Studies > Themes > Common Core
    • History and Social Studies > Place > The Americas
    • History and Social Studies > People > Native American
    • Literature and Language Arts > Genre > Poetry
    • Creative writing
    • Critical analysis
    • Interpretation
    • Making inferences and drawing conclusions
    • Map Skills
    • Musical analysis
    • Poetry analysis
    • Poetry writing
    Mesa Verde landscape of the Southwest

    Peoples of the Mesa Verde Region

    Crow Canyon Archaeological Center illustrates the story of this rugged land through a chronology that is still unfolding, detailing the artifacts, housing and food of the region's Paleoindian, Pueblo, Ute, Navajo, and European inhabitants.

    Why Treaties Matter poster display

    Why Treaties Matter: Self-Government in the Dakota and Ojibwe Nations

    A virtual exhibit on how Dakota and Ojibwe treaties with the U.S. government affected the lands and lifeways of the indigenous peoples of the place now called Minnesota and why these binding agreements between nations still matter today. Educator guides provide teachers with background, student readings and activities, vocabulary lists, and suggested Web and print resources. Created by the Minnesota Indian Affairs Council and the Smithsonian’s National Museum of the American Indian.

    Main altar reredos, Mission San Miguel (detail)

    The 14th Colony: A California Missions Resource for Teachers

    NEH Summer Landmark for School teachers, The Fourteenth Colony, collection of K-12 instructional resources include multimedia spanning Native Californians, Missions, Presidios and Pueblos of the Spanish, and Mexican and early American traditions and eras. Primary sources, maps, and images document the cultural and historical geography of the California missions.

    Walt Whitman on Abraham Lincoln Manuscript Division, LOC

    Teacher’s Guide to the 150th Anniversary of the Assassination of Abraham Lincoln

    Discover how the American people coped with the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln 150 years ago.

    Taos Pueblo

    Pueblo Indian History for Kids

    Crow Canyon Archaeological Center brings the Pueblo Indians of the Southwest to life showing how their culture developed from ancient times to the present with a glossary, maps, photos, reconstructions, and video, Visit with Respect.