Photograph of a Hopi woman basket weaver, c. 1910

Native American Heritage Month

November is Native American Heritage Month, and NEH and EDSITEment have numerous teaching resources to help students discover Native American history.

Image from Mission US 2 game

Mission US 2: Flight to Freedom

Mission 2: “Flight to Freedom,” is a game for students to learn about the difficulties encountered by slaves as they tried to escape the South.

  • Mission US 2: Flight to Freedom

    Created February 7, 2012
    African American Union soldier, Civil War

    EDSITEment's Guide to Black History Month Teaching Resources

    In this special revised and updated feature for Black History Month, teachers, parents, and students will find a collection of NEH-supported websites and EDSITEment-developed lessons that tell the four-hundred-year old story of African Americans from slavery through freedom and citizenship to the presidency.

    Revolution! The Atlantic World Reborn

    Trace the Age of Revolution (1763-1815) in a global narrative, including the American struggle against British rule, the British struggle toward the abolition of slavery, the French attack on aristocracy, and the Haitian slave revolt-turned revolution. The classroom materials include a teachers’ guide with background information, lesson plans and extension activities; primary sources; Life Stories; and a multi-layered timeline. The guide is available as a PDF.

    Lesson Plans: Grades 9-12
    Curriculum Unit

    The Crisis of American Diplomacy, 1793–1808 (3 Lessons)

    Created January 12, 2012

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    The Unit

    Overview

    The Crisis in American Diplomacy: Overview

    Impressment of American sailors by the British navy. This practice was one of the sources of contention between the nascent republic and the British empire.

    Credit: Florida Educational Clearinghouse

    This curriculum unit of three lessons covers the critical problems for United States foreign policy posed by the outbreak of the wars of the French Revolution. Was the U.S. alliance with France still in effect? Did America’s young economy require the maintenance of close ties with Britain? Ultimately, President Washington decided on a position of neutrality. This official position would last until the outbreak of war in 1812. Neutrality proved to be difficult to maintain, however, particularly in light of the fact that both Britain and France consistently interfered with American affairs.

    Guiding Questions

    • How did British foreign policy decisions challenge American neutrality between 1793 and the ratification of the Jay Treaty?
    • Why was the Jay Treaty so controversial, and how did it stimulate internal democratic development?
    • How did French foreign policy decisions challenge American sovereignty in the late 1790s?
    • How did the Adams administration respond to this challenge?
    • Was an embargo the best means of addressing European depredations on American shipping in the early nineteenth century? Was war a meaningful option?
    • Could the United States have afforded to do nothing?

    Learning Objectives

    Upon completion of this unit, student should be able to

    • Recognize the impact of the French Revolution upon American diplomacy
    • Explain British attacks on American neutrality
    • Explain the diplomatic logic behind the Jay Treaty
    • Articulate domestic political opposition to the Treaty
    • Identify French attacks on American neutrality
    • Articulate American responses to French depredations
    • Articulate the logic behind the Embargo Act of 1807
    • Assess the arguments for and against the application of the embargo

    Background

    The outbreak of the French Revolutionary wars posed a critical problem for the United States. Was the U.S. alliance with France, which dated back to 1778, still in effect? Did America’s nascent economy require the maintenance of close ties with Britain? Ultimately, President George Washington decided that the United States was in no condition to engage in military confrontation and decided on a position of neutrality. This official position was the beginning of an effort by the United States to remain neutral in European affairs that would last until the outbreak of war in 1812. Neutrality proved to be difficult to maintain, however, particularly in light of the fact that both Britain and France consistently interfered with American affairs.

    The first such interference occurred in April 1793, when Edmond Charles Genet arrived as French minister to the United States. Genet’s mission was to ensure American support for France in the European wars, and he was chagrined to find that President Washington insisted on strict neutrality. Among other things, he commissioned American privateers to harass British shipping and enlisted Americans to move against Spanish interests in New Orleans. The British responded by seizing American vessels loaded with French West Indian cargo and confiscating said cargo as contraband of war. To make matters worse, they also began searching American ships for sailors who had deserted the Royal Navy, and if necessary removed said deserters for re-entrance into British service. Known as impressment, this practice amounted to the kidnapping of American citizens.

    News of captures (both vessels and sailors) deeply concerned members of the emerging Democratic-Republican political coalition. Many insisted on the notion that “free ships make free goods,” and that contraband should be defined to include only weapons of war. They wanted to fight the British with trade restrictions, and possibly more. Federalists, who received particularly strong support from New England merchant interests, were less inclined to agree. They understood that American trade depended upon a good relationship with Britain. Hoping to ease tensions, in 1794 Washington sent John Jay as an envoy to London.

    Jay eventually negotiated a treaty that had both positive and negative aspects. On the one hand, American commerce revived and the government successfully avoided open confrontation with Britain. On the other hand, it seemed to nurture a de facto commercial alliance with the British, despite the government’s stated commitment to neutrality. The Senate ratified it in closed session, albeit with a bare majority. It became public through 1795 and 1796, and as it did so public meetings, memorials, petitions, addresses, resolutions, and demonstrations were held throughout the country.

    There were also international ramifications. When France learned of the treaty they grew convinced that the U.S. and Britain had allied, and that the Franco-American alliance of 1778 had been destroyed. Thus in 1796 the French stepped up their own campaign of seizures and recalled their American envoy. In 1797 French officials went a few steps further: they expelled the American minister to Paris, and then made it clear to an American legation that they would treat with the United States only upon the receipt of bribes of $250,000, a loan of $12 million, and apologies for unpleasant remarks made by President John Adams about France. The exchange between the American delegation and their French counterpart subsequently became known as the XYZ Affair. In conjunction with the stepped-up French program of vessel seizure, it became the catalyst for an undeclared naval “Quasi-War” between the two countries.

    International tensions (if not domestic unrest) subsided by early 1801, but in 1805 Britain and France once again began to pose significant challenges to the United States. Continual violations of neutral rights, the seizure of vessels, and the sensitive problem of impressment meant that American losses under French and British trade policies were heavy. In late 1807 the Thomas Jefferson administration decided to retaliate with trade sanctions. Republican Party leaders were convinced that America’s greatest weapon was her economic power. They reasoned that if the United States could successfully remove its goods from international markets, the resulting economic downturn would force Britain and France to alter their policies. Thus in December of 1807 Jefferson asked for, and Congress passed, an embargo act, which prohibited American ships from leaving port at all. To enforce it Jefferson received increasingly broad powers, climaxing in the Enforcement Act of 1809, which gave customs officials sweeping power to use the army and navy to suppress smuggling. Enforcement was successful, but many people became disillusioned with the embargo because of its economic effect on the country. Exports, which had peaked at $108,000,000 in 1807, plummeted to $22,000,000 in 1808. The resulting economic crisis hit New England particularly hard and allowed the Federalist Party to re-emerge as a viable political force.

    Yet for all this domestic unrest the embargo had very little effect on England or France. The British simply found other sources to provide them with food and raw material, and readily expanded their own exports into South American markets. For his part, Napoleon had already lost much of his maritime trade and hardly noticed any economic impact. He even used the embargo as a pretext for stepping up the seizure of American ships—since they were supposed to be at home, these ships surely were British vessels in disguise. Faced with domestic unrest and foreign indifference, Congress abandoned the embargo shortly before the end of Jefferson’s administration in 1809.

    Preparation Instructions

    Review the lesson plans in the unit. Locate and bookmark suggested materials and links from EDSITEment-reviewed websites used in this lesson. Download and print out selected documents and duplicate copies as necessary for student viewing. Alternatively, excerpted versions of these documents are available as part of the downloadable PDFs. These files contain excerpted versions of the documents used in all each lesson, as well as questions for students to answer. Print out and make an appropriate number of copies of the handouts you plan to use in class.

    Analyzing primary sources

    If your students lack experience in dealing with primary sources, you might use one or more preliminary exercises to help them develop these skills. The Learning Page at the American Memory Project of the Library of Congress includes a set of such activities. Another useful resource is the Digital Classroom of the National Archives, which features a set of Document Analysis Worksheets.

    The Lessons

    The Basics

    Grade Level

    9-12

    Subject Areas
    • History and Social Studies
    • History and Social Studies > U.S. > Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820s)
    • History and Social Studies > U.S.
    • History and Social Studies > People > Native American
    • History and Social Studies > People > Other
    • History and Social Studies > U.S. History
    • History and Social Studies > Themes > War and Foreign Policy
    Skills
    • Compare and contrast
    • Critical analysis
    • Critical thinking
    • Data analysis
    • Evaluating arguments
    • Interpretation
    • Using primary sources
    • Using secondary sources
  • Lesson 3: Britain, Napoleon, and the American Embargo, 1803–1808

    Created January 12, 2012
    H.M.S. Leopard attacking U.S.S. Chesapeake, 1807

    This lesson examines the ways in which Great Britain and France countries challenged American neutrality during the Thomas Jefferson administration.

  • Lesson 2: The United States, France, and the Problem of Neutrality, 1796–1801

    Created January 11, 2012
    Execution of Louis XVI

    This lesson examines the ways in which France challenged American sovereignty between 1796 and 1801.

  • Lesson 1: The United States Confronts Great Britain, 1793–1796

    Created January 11, 2012
    Impressment

    This lesson will examine the ways in which Great Britain challenged American sovereignty in the early republic.

    Riots at the 1968 Democratic convention

    1968

    The Minnesota Historical Society, in partnership with the Atlanta History Center, the Chicago History Museum and the Oakland Museum of California, brings you a major exhibit documenting this pivotal year. The 1968 Exhibit is an ambitious, state-of-the-art, multi-media exhibit that looks at how the experiences of the year fueled a persistent, if often contradictory, sense of identity for the people who were there.