Lesson Plans: Grades 9-12

Lesson 1: From the President's Lips: The Concerns that Led to the Sedition (and Alien) Act

A We The People Resource

Tools

The Lesson

Introduction

John Adams.

John Adams.

Credit: Courtesy of American Memory at the Library of Congress.

As the end of the 18th century drew near, relations between the United States and France were deteriorating. President John Adams wanted to preserve American neutrality in conflicts between Britain and France. He sent a minister to France who was not received. President Adams then addressed a joint session of Congress on May 16, 1797, expressing his concern about the possibility of war with France and dissension at home caused by France and its supporters. In October, three commissioners appointed by Adams arrived in Paris in hopes of "restoring mutual confidence" between the countries. French Prime Minister Talleyrand's agents—known only as X, Y, and Z, and assumed to be acting on Talleyrand's orders—refused to receive the diplomats. They demanded a bribe, presumably for Talleyrand himself, and a large loan for France. The American people were incensed. War with France seemed inevitable; in fact, the U.S. is often described as being in an undeclared war with France following the XYZ affair.

At the same time, two opposing political parties were developing in the U.S. Tending to sympathize with France in foreign policy were the Thomas Jefferson-led Democratic-Republicans. Their loyalty was called into question by the Federalists, who dominated Congress during Adams's administration. It was a dangerous time both for the security of the young Republic and the freedoms its citizens enjoyed.

The Federalists clashed frequently with Democratic-Republicans who disagreed sharply with what they regarded as a philosophy of "huge public debt, a standing army, high taxes, and government-subsidized monopolies" (The Birth of Political Parties, Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, a link from the EDSITEment-reviewed website History Matters). Could the Federalists, the party in control, wield the power necessary to protect America against those who opposed it without wielding that power against those who opposed them?

The Sedition Act touched off a lively debate about the right of free speech. It also presented an early test case to the citizens and government of the United States. In times of war or imminent danger, how do you balance the need for security with the rights of individuals? How can partisan politics affect the process of shaping security policies?

Guiding Questions

What conditions provided the impetus for the Sedition Act?

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, students will be able to

  • Summarize briefly the international situation during John Adams’s presidency
  • Include also a summary of the domestic political situation
  • List the concerns that led to the Sedition Act
  • Describe the Sedition Act

Preparation Instructions

  • Review the lesson plan. Locate and bookmark suggested materials and other useful websites. Download and print out documents you will use and duplicate copies as necessary for student viewing.
  • Download the Master PDF. Print out and make an appropriate number of copies of any handouts you plan to use in class.

Lesson Activities

Activity 1. The Sedition Act

Review the selected passages from the Sedition Act (July 14, 1798) in the annotated handout "Excerpts from the Sedition Act (with Annotations)," on pages 56 of the Master PDF, or the full text of the Sedition Act on the EDSITEment resource The Avalon Project. The following questions will help guide students' reading of the document:

  • According to the EDSITEment-reviewed website The American President, "Although Adams was fiercely criticized for signing the Sedition Act, he never advocated [its] passage nor personally implemented [it]." But in what way does the act reflect President Adams's concerns, principles, or solutions, as listed by the class?
  • What does the Sedition Act classify as a crime?
  • In what ways does the act go beyond what Adams might have wanted?

By a show of hands, determine which students believe the Sedition Act was/was not designed to respond to the President's concerns.

Activity 2. Special Message

Share with the class the handout "Excerpts from John Adams's Special Message," on pages 3–4 of the Master PDF, or the full text of John Adams—Special Message to the Senate and the House, May 16, 1797 on the EDSITEment-reviewed website The Avalon Project. Adams's speech, delivered about one year before the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts, concentrates on the genuine problems in foreign relations that were used later to justify the passage of the acts. The following questions will help guide students' reading of the document:

  • What were President Adams's concerns?
  • What principles did President Adams suggest influenced his thinking?
  • What solutions, if any, did he discuss?

Ask students to list Adams's concerns, principles, and solutions.

Activity 3. Partisan Animosity

Partisan animosity was strong during Adams's presidency. The first two political parties in the U.S. were in their infancy—the Federalists, to which the majority of members of Congress belonged, and the Democratic-Republicans, led by former vice-president Thomas Jefferson and four-term Congressman James Madison, who had left the House in 1796.

Share the cartoon Congressional Pugilists (large image) or Congressional Pugilists (medium image) from the EDSITEment resource Harp Week. Use the Cartoon Analysis Worksheet on the EDSITEment-reviewed website Digital Classroom to guide a whole-class or small-group analysis. Though the immediate cause of the fight between Representatives Matthew Lyon, a Republican from Vermont, and Roger Griswold, a Federalist from Connecticut, was a personal insult, "this unseemly congressional scandal thus manifested and exacerbated the ideological rift between the Federalists and the Republicans and was a national awakening to the virulence of America's increasingly partisan political process" (from Fracas in Congress: The Battle of Honor between Matthew Lyon and Roger Griswold by Brian T. Neff, on the Electronic Text Center of the University of Virginia, a link from the EDSITEment resource Internet Public Library). If desired, as an extension to this activity, interested students can read more about this incident in "Excerpt from Fracas in Congress" on pages 1–2 of the Master PDF. For a complete description and analysis of the fracas, click on the title of the essay above.

Activity 4. Overview of John Adams

Read with the class a brief overview of John Adams and his presidency from the class text or a source such as John Adams: A Life in Brief on the EDSITEment resource The American President. What were the international conditions that led to President Adams's Special Message to the Senate and the House, May 16, 1797 (available on the EDSITEment-reviewed website The Avalon Project)? What was the political situation at home?

Activity 5. A Closer Look

If desired, read the background on the Alien and Sedition Acts from the EDSITEment resource Digital Classroom. Go back to the annotated handout "Excerpts from the Sedition Act" or the full text of the Sedition Act. What specific parts of the Sedition Act had the most potential for abuse?

Assessment

Lead students in a discussion of the following questions:

  • What were the international conditions that led to President Adams's Special Message to the Senate and the House, May 16, 1797?
  • What was the essential content of President Adams's Special Message to the Senate and the House, May 16, 1797?
  • What was the essential content of the Sedition Act?
  • In what ways was the Sedition Act a response to international conditions?
  • In what ways, if any, was the Sedition Act more than a response to international conditions?

Keep in mind that there was a yearlong gap between President Adams's speech and passage of the Sedition Act. In addition, think about the expiration date set for the Sedition Act—March 3, 1803—one day before the next president's (or John Adams's second) term in office would officially begin. The Federalists who passed the act did not want to take a chance that their freedom of expression would be limited should a Democratic-Republican be elected. Ask each student to write a summary of the concerns/factors that led Congress to pass the Sedition Act when it did.

The Basics

Grade Level

9-12

Time Required

2 class periods

Subject Areas
  • History and Social Studies > U.S. > AP US History
  • History and Social Studies
  • History and Social Studies > Themes > Civil Rights
  • History and Social Studies > Place > Europe
  • History and Social Studies > U.S. > Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820s)
  • History and Social Studies > Place > The Americas
  • History and Social Studies > World > The Modern World (1500 CE-Present)
  • History and Social Studies > People > Other
  • History and Social Studies > Themes > Immigration/Migration
  • History and Social Studies > Themes > Politics and Citizenship
  • History and Social Studies > Themes > U.S. Constitution
  • History and Social Studies > Themes > War and Foreign Policy
Skills
  • Critical analysis
  • Critical thinking
  • Discussion
  • Gathering, classifying and interpreting written, oral and visual information
  • Historical analysis
  • Interpretation
  • Making inferences and drawing conclusions
  • Textual analysis
  • Using primary sources
Authors
  • MMS (AL)

Resources

Activity Worksheets
Student Resources
Media