Read the following background about the development of English towns and their expansion in Massachusetts in the seventeenth-century.
On the Settlement of Towns:
These towns were a product, not of long continuous development, but instead, of a rapid process of town planning which was not constrained by existing physical structures and property lines of previous European settlement. The tightly clustered settlements of large and small land holders living adjacent to one another were focused on the meetinghouse and maintained a high degree of internal social order and self-maintenance. Attendance at religious worship and at town meetings was obligatory and enforced by town meeting. There was a strong sense of interdependency and community early on and on a daily basis. The nucleated village, one of many forms present in England during the medieval period, is associated with attempts to reorganize and control agricultural production and to facilitate control over the village's population through an emphasis on ordered land use and face-to-face observation of each villager's daily activities.
(from Susan McGowan, "The Landscape in the Colonial Period")
For more information on the changes in towns and Indian relations between the 1630s and the 1670s, you can use Digital History's Dimensions of Change in Colonial New England.
Now look at the maps below.
Construct a chart creating a list of items to compare and then fill in the information. Write a brief comparative paragraph about these two maps of New England for later reference in the activity.
Read Edward Johnson's essay below. Edward Johnson Describes the Founding of the Town of Concord in Massachusetts Bay, 1635 and in an annotated version as a PDF.
Read Metacom or King Philip, Metacom Relates Indian Complaints about the English Settlers, 1675 and an annotated version as a PDF.
Go back to the maps after reading and discussing the texts as well as reviewing the key concepts. Choose one map to create a visual story. Choose two or three details (symbols, names, or other features). Explain what those details tell us about English and Native American communities in New England in the 1630s or 1670s. Use information from the text documents as part of your annotation. After you have annotated two or three details you will have a map with several "balloons" around it that tell a visual story about the map's meaning.
Write a short paragraph that compares the map and the text as a view of English colonization in Massachusetts.