Louisa May Alcott, American author, dies

Main Subject Areas: 
Event Date: 
Repeats every year until Tue Mar 06 2035 .
March 6, 2011
March 6, 2012
March 6, 2013
March 6, 2014
March 6, 2015
March 6, 2016
March 6, 2017
March 6, 2018
March 6, 2019
March 6, 2020
March 6, 2021
March 6, 2022
March 6, 2023
March 6, 2024
March 6, 2025
March 6, 2026
March 6, 2027
March 6, 2028
March 6, 2029
March 6, 2030
March 6, 2031
March 6, 2032
March 6, 2033
March 6, 2034
March 6, 2035
Event Date Display: 
March 6, 1888

Boris Pasternak, Russian author of Doctor Zhivago, born

Main Subject Areas: 
Event Date: 
Repeats every year until Sat Feb 10 2035 .
February 10, 2011
February 10, 2012
February 10, 2013
February 10, 2014
February 10, 2015
February 10, 2016
February 10, 2017
February 10, 2018
February 10, 2019
February 10, 2020
February 10, 2021
February 10, 2022
February 10, 2023
February 10, 2024
February 10, 2025
February 10, 2026
February 10, 2027
February 10, 2028
February 10, 2029
February 10, 2030
February 10, 2031
February 10, 2032
February 10, 2033
February 10, 2034
February 10, 2035
Event Date Display: 
February 10, 1890

Chinese New Year: Year of the Horse

Main Subject Areas: 
Event Date: 
Repeats every year until Sat Feb 10 2035 .
January 31, 2014
January 31, 2015
January 31, 2016
January 31, 2017
January 31, 2018
January 31, 2019
January 31, 2020
January 31, 2021
January 31, 2022
January 31, 2023
January 31, 2024
January 31, 2025
January 31, 2026
January 31, 2027
January 31, 2028
January 31, 2029
January 31, 2030
January 31, 2031
January 31, 2032
January 31, 2033
January 31, 2034
January 31, 2035
Event Date Display: 
January 31, 2014

John Steinbeck, American writer, is born

Event Date: 
Repeats every year until Tue Feb 27 2035 .
February 27, 2010
February 27, 2011
February 27, 2012
February 27, 2013
February 27, 2014
February 27, 2015
February 27, 2016
February 27, 2017
February 27, 2018
February 27, 2019
February 27, 2020
February 27, 2021
February 27, 2022
February 27, 2023
February 27, 2024
February 27, 2025
February 27, 2026
February 27, 2027
February 27, 2028
February 27, 2029
February 27, 2030
February 27, 2031
February 27, 2032
February 27, 2033
February 27, 2034
February 27, 2035
Event Date Display: 
February 27, 1902
Lesson Plans: Grades 9-12
Curriculum Unit

Magical Realism in “One Hundred Years of Solitude” for the Common Core (3 Lessons)

Created October 8, 2014

Tools

Share

The Unit

Overview

Gabriel Garcia Marquez

Gabriel Garcia Marquez, 1984.

Credit: By F3rn4nd0, edited by Mangostar [CC-BY-SA-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons.

Today’s students live in an online and literary world dominated by fantasy. The wildly popular book and film series: Harry Potter, Twilight, and The Hunger Games, all capture young imaginations and give students an escape from the pressures of academic reality, parental expectations, difficult economic times, and a world that seems filled with war, climate change, and human suffering.

This unit provides an opportunity for students to explore magical realism in the hands of one of the world’s most gifted authors. Through these lessons they will discover how Gabriel García Márquez meshes magical elements with a reality which is, in his view, fantastical in its own right. García Márquez actually recapitulates episodes in the history of Latin America through the story of real and fantastical events experienced over the course of one century by the Buendía family. The fictional village of Macondo is modeled on García Márquez's hometown, Aracataca, Columbia.

Magical realism, for which García Márquez has been rightly acclaimed, has been defined by many critics. However, there is still much disagreement about its meaning. English-speaking critics tend to place emphasis on the magical elements, while Spanish-speakers tend to stress the reality that underlies the novel. García Márquez himself defended the latter view when he articulated Latin America’s “outsized reality” in his Nobel Prize in Literature (1982) lecture, “The Solitude of Latin America.”

In Lesson 1, students are introduced to the term “magical realism” and go on to investigate how García Márquez used magical and fantastical elements to enrich his story of the Buendía family and the history of Macondo. In Lesson 2, students ascertain the realistic elements in this author’s style.  They trace how García Márquez used actual events and people from his own life and factual incidents from Colombian history to create his epic. In Lesson 3, students turn to an informational text, García Márquez’s 1982 Nobel Prize acceptance speech, “The Solitude of Latin America.” They pay witness to the author’s observations on how the lines between the fantastic and realistic intersect in the culture and history of Latin America so vividly depicted in this novel.

Guiding Questions

  • How does García Márquez blend magical and fantastical elements as well as realistic and historical elements into One Hundred Years of Solitude to create his own brand of magical realism?

College and Career Readiness Standards

Anchor standard

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.3
Analyze how and why individuals, events, or ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.

Grade level standards

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.11-12.3
Analyze the impact of the author's choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are introduced and developed).

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.11-12.3
Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text.

Background

Gabriel García Márquez said that everything he wrote is drawn from the first eight years of his life, a period when he lived with his maternal grandparents. His grandmother was a storyteller whose superstitions, legends, and realistic tone provided him with much source material. His grandfather, a veteran of the civil wars that had shaken Colombia over the years, gave García Márquez a foundation for the many wars fought by Colonel Aureliano Buendía. The town where his grandparents lived, Aracateca, served as a model for Macondo; in fact, “Macondo” was the name of a nearby banana plantation. The massacre described in his book was also nearby and actually occurred in 1928, the year he was born.

At the age of eight, García Márquez left Aracateca to rejoin his parents and they then sent him to boarding school. At twelve he won a scholarship to a Jesuit high school in Bogotá, where he showed his love of literature, stories, and drawing; however, upon graduation, he followed his parents’ wishes and began the study of law at the Universidad Nacional in Bogotá. He loathed law school, however, and began instead to write short stories, a number of which were published; he also used the time to catch up on his reading of both modern literature and the classics. He felt liberated by Kafka’s Metamorphosis and was particularly influenced by Faulkner’s creation of the world of Yoknapatawpha County.

García Márquez finally dropped out of law school to take a position as a writer for a Colombian newspaper. When he wrote an exposé that annoyed the government, the paper sent him to cover a story in Europe. He parlayed this assignment into a role as a foreign correspondent and roamed Europe as a journalist; he later said that this journalistic training was extremely important in shaping his fiction writing. Eventually his career took him to Cuba to cover the revolution there. He became friends with Fidel Castro and flirted with socialism himself. Although some of his writing was published, he was not a great success.

Then, in 1965, García Márquez revisited his hometown and felt an inspiration. He wrote daily for eighteen months, almost bankrupting his family, and finally finished One Hundred Years of Solitude. The novel was an immediate success, becoming one of the most popular works of magical realism, selling half a million copies in a few years. García Márquez once said that he tried to tap “the magic in commonplace events.”

García Márquez continued to write, moved to Mexico, and began to support numerous leftist causes with the proceeds of his books. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1982. He continued to write and teach for many years; his death in 2014 was mourned throughout the world.

Additional biographical background information about García Márquez is available from The Modern World.

Assessment

Have students write an essay using the following prompt:

There are repeated magic incidents and fantastic descriptions of events, many of them with a factual basis in Latin American history, in García Márquez’s One Hundred Years of Solitude. How does the author’s frequent use of “magical realism,” as this technique has been labeled, color and shape the reader’s experience of this novel?

In their essays, students should include a definition of magical realism, examples of this technique, and textual evidence to support their arguments.

You may use the Final Assessment Rubric provided for both student self-assessment and your own final assessment.

Extending the Unit

1. Circularity of Time

A part of the fantastic elements García Márquez used to structure his novel is inherent in the old adage: History repeats itself. Rather than employing strict chronological order, the plot of the narrative is marked by constant shifts of time, often to the past, sometimes even to the future.

Have students consider the effect of the circular and repetitive structure found in One Hundred Years of Solitude. Identify episodes from the text where García Márquez employs the following literary devices:

  • The repetition of names in various forms
  • Repetition of personality traits/biographical details in family members
  • Characters able to foretell the future
  • Shifting time—use of flashbacks and flash-forwards
  • The repetition of images and colors
  • The reappearances of minor characters as ghosts

Take one of these literary devices and write a short essay explaining how effective García Márquez was in using it to suspend chronological time in those episodes. 

Compare García Márquez’s use of circular time structure in One Hundred Years of Solitude with another writer you have studied who has applied circularity in his/her work. (i.e., Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart; William Faulkner’s The Sound and the Fury; Toni Morrison’s Beloved; Tim O'Brien’s The Things They Carried;Kurt Vonnegut’sSlaughterhouse-Five.)

2. Re-telling an Event with Magical Realism

Have students respond to the following prompt:

Take a current event from the news or historical event that you are familiar with and write a short story retelling the event in the style of magical realism. In your narrative, employ the literary devices used in One Hundred Years of Solitude such as magical events; occurrences and supernatural figures told with specific detail and matter-of-fact tone; factual incidents and persons; circular time structure; repetition; hyperbole; extended paragraphs, etc.

The Lessons

  • Lesson 1: Magical Elements in Magical Realism

    Created October 6, 2014

    In this triumph of magical realism, One Hundred Years of Solitude chronicles a century of the remarkable Buendía family’s history in the fictional Colombian town of Macondo. The three lessons presented here explore the fantastic elements of this imaginary world, the real history that lies behind them, and García Márquez’s own philosophical musings on writing about Latin America.

  • Lesson 2: The Realism in Magical Realism

    Created October 7, 2014

    In this triumph of magical realism, One Hundred Years of Solitude chronicles a century of the remarkable Buendía family’s history in the fictional Colombian town of Macondo. The three lessons presented here explore the fantastic elements of this imaginary world, the real history that lies behind them, and García Márquez’s own philosophical musings on writing about Latin America.

  • Lesson 3: García Márquez’s Nobel Prize Speech: “The Solitude of Latin America”

    Created October 9, 2014

    In this triumph of magical realism, One Hundred Years of Solitude chronicles a century of the remarkable Buendía family’s history in the fictional Colombian town of Macondo. The three lessons presented here explore the fantastic elements of this imaginary world, the real history that lies behind them, and García Márquez’s own philosophical musings on writing about Latin America.

The Basics

Grade Level

9-12

Subject Areas
  • Literature and Language Arts > Genre > AP Literature
  • Literature and Language Arts
Skills
  • Architectural analysis
  • Auditory analysis
  • Critical analysis
  • Critical thinking
  • Discussion
  • Fairy tale analysis
  • Interpretation
  • Literary analysis
  • Representing ideas and information orally, graphically and in writing
  • Summarizing
  • Textual analysis
  • Writing skills
  • Lesson 2: The Realism in Magical Realism

    Created October 7, 2014

    In this triumph of magical realism, One Hundred Years of Solitude chronicles a century of the remarkable Buendía family’s history in the fictional Colombian town of Macondo. The three lessons presented here explore the fantastic elements of this imaginary world, the real history that lies behind them, and García Márquez’s own philosophical musings on writing about Latin America.

  • Lesson 1: Magical Elements in Magical Realism

    Created October 6, 2014

    In this triumph of magical realism, One Hundred Years of Solitude chronicles a century of the remarkable Buendía family’s history in the fictional Colombian town of Macondo. The three lessons presented here explore the fantastic elements of this imaginary world, the real history that lies behind them, and García Márquez’s own philosophical musings on writing about Latin America.

    Shakespeare: From the Globe to the Global

    This collaborative production of the college teacher-participants in a 2011 NEH summer humanities institute at the Folger Shakespeare Library models various approaches, contexts, and resources. Collectively, this sampler of participant themes with applications for teaching, faculty video clips, and annotated bibliographies provides exciting new materials for teaching and research.

  • “Where the Mountain Meets the Moon”: A Common Core Exemplar

    Created September 10, 2014
    Grace Lin

    Grace Lin's novel Where the Mountain Meets the Moon combines the story of a courageous young girl who travels to search for help for her family with a set of Chinese traditional tales. The lessons help students to understand the nature of this frame story and to write their own stories of meeting challenges.

    September—Back to Work, Back to School, Back to Books

    Common Core Lessons and Related Resources for Back to School 2014

    Annual feature detailing resources teachers may find useful as school resumes. For this 2104 listing, EDSITEment has framed new resources aligned to respond to the Common Core State Standards including a number of exemplars.