• Lesson 2: Man and Superman

    Created January 12, 2015
    Portrait of the Writer Fyodor Dostoyevsky, 1972, Vasily Perov

    Students examine the theory Man vs. Superman as it is revealed in several scenes within the novel and tackle the larger questions it bring up: Are humans really divided into two distinct categories, the ordinary and the extraordinary? Is this division a figment created by an overactive intellect? What did Dostoevsky think? Then they learn the theory differs radically from Dostoyevsky’s fictional reality—and reader’s—uncover yet another split in the world of the novel, one between intellect and emotion/instinct.

  • Lesson 3: Societal Schisms and Divisions

    Created January 12, 2015
    Portrait of the Writer Fyodor Dostoyevsky, 1972, Vasily Perov

    Students examine the novel’s societal setting, which is also fraught with division. Crime and Punishment is more than just a demonstration of the idea that crime does not pay, it is a vivid depiction of societal injustice. For example, Dostoyevsky’s mid-nineteenth century Russia offered women narrowly circumscribed roles, most often resulting in their dependence on men and/or a life of poverty. The negative effects of several other societal divisions raise additional questions.

    Lesson Plans: Grades 9-12
    Curriculum Unit

    Schisms and Divisions in “Crime and Punishment”: A Common Core Exemplar (3 Lessons)

    Created January 12, 2015

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    The Unit

    Overview

    Portrait of the Writer Fyodor Dostoyevsky, 1972, Vasily Perov

    Portrait of the Writer Fyodor Dostoyevsky

    Credit: 1872, Vasily Perov

    In Dostoevsky there were things unbelievable and not to be believed, but some so true they changed you as you read them; frailty and madness, wickedness and saintliness, and the insanity of gambling were there to know as you knew the landscape and the roads in Turgenev. ― Ernest Hemingway

    Today Fyodor Dostoevsky is universally viewed as one of the nineteenth century’s greatest and most influential writers. Dostoevsky’s experiences were broad—including brushes with death, the loss of loved ones, political oppression, and years spent in a hard labor camp. His observations of those around him, as well as his own reactions and emotions, are reflected in his fiction, giving it great psychological depth.

    Crime and Punishment, first published in 1866 in serial form, is a complex text with a riveting and troubling story line about a young man who steps outside the boundaries of legality and decency and pays a great price for it. It is not a novel for the faint of heart, but it is a superb choice for college-bound juniors and seniors, especially those in Advanced Placement, honors, and International Baccalaureate programs. Several translations are available, including the long-favored one by Constance Garnett, a popular one by David McDuff, and the highly acclaimed one by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhansky. Translations vary slightly with some characters' names (for example, Dounia, Dunia, Dunechka). The worksheets included in this unit use Garnett’s interpretations but can be altered, if necessary.

    The first lesson focuses on Dostoevsky’s view of human nature and delves into the character Raskolnikov, whose name derives from the Russian word for "schism" or "split." Throughout the text he, as well as other characters, displays a dualistic nature that draws in conflicting directions. The second lesson deals with the theoretical division of human beings into those who are ordinary and the other few who are not bound by limits that affect everyone else. This motif, a split between logic/reason and emotion/instinct, is analyzed to determine the difference between theory and Rakskolnikov's actual experience. The third lesson demonstrates that the societal setting in the novel is also characterized by splits and divisions. Students are challenged to learn from Dostoevsky, as thinkers as diverse as Hemingway and Einstein did, and to articulate what they learn in both classroom discussion and assessment essays.

    Each lesson requires students to go beyond character analysis to comprehend Dostoyevsky's underlying themes. What does the novel imply about human nature? Dostoevsky shows his readers that people are neither simple nor easily classified; they are often torn in opposite directions by forces both inside of and outside of themselves, sometimes with catastrophic results.

    Guiding Questions

    • How does Dostoyevsky develop the character of Raskolnikov in Crime and Punishment to reflect his views of the schisms inherent in human nature?
    • In what way does Dostoevsky set up a dichotomy between Man and Superman, as well as between reason and emotion?
    • How does Dostoyevsky use a variety of individual and societal divisions to underpin the central themes of Crime and Punishment?

    College and Career Readiness Standards

    Anchor Standard

    CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.2

    Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize key supporting details and ideas.

    Grade Standards

    CCSS ELA LITERACY RL 11-12.1

    Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including where the text leaves matters uncertain.

    CCSA ELA LITERACY RL 11-12.2

    Determine two or more themes or central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to produce a complex account; provide an objective summary of the text.

    CCSS ELA LITERACY RL 11-12.6

    Analyze a case in which grasping a point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated from what is really meant (e.g., satire, sarcasm, irony, or understatement).

    Summative Assessment: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.11-12.1

    Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

    Background

    Crime and Punishment demonstrates Dostoevsky's keen awareness of the society in which he lived. He knew well the chasm between the many have-nots and the few wealthy, as well as the tensions between the Westernizers (who wanted Russia to become more European) and the Slavophiles (who thought the best path for Russia was a return to its Slavic roots.). He had firsthand knowledge of what his character, Raskolnikov, would have experienced being sentenced to a labor camp in Siberia. Dostoevsky also discovered increasing radicalism among young people, including the rise of a political movement popularly called "nihilism," which was based on utilitarian thinking and rejection of religious faith. In its most radical form, Russian nihilism rejected all institutions and laws—it was a complete abrogation of everything that Russian people had believed and practiced for centuries. The novel reflects both the appeal and the limitations of this way of thinking. It shows us the tremendous injustice in 19th-century Russian society, while also suggesting that the rejection of every aspect of this social structure is not the way to create justice.

    This is a complex and lengthy literary work about a young man torn in conflicting directions. On one hand instinctively compassionate and kind, Raskolnikov is also coldly intellectual and aloof. The crime he seems to have been contemplating for a long time occurs at the end of Part 1. Punishment fills the rest of the novel; although his mind insists that the old woman he killed was barely human and the world was better off without her, he is wretchedly unhappy and caught in what he sees as a kind of cat-and-mouse game with the authorities. His confession, conviction, and deportation to Siberia comes as a relief, and the novel’s conclusion implies but does not fully explain his redemption as a human being.

    The three lessons in this unit stress the polarizations that dominate the novel: characters torn by opposing tendencies; theories that separate ordinary people from the extraordinary; disconnects between intellect and emotion; societal divides that formed the fermenting mixture that led to revolution half a century later.

    For information on the life of Dostoyevsky as contextual background to teaching the novel see PDF #1.

    For tips on how to handle Russian names and notes on Russian culture in the 19th-century see PDF #2.

    Assessment

    Choose a topic about which Dostoevsky demonstrates polarization or division in Crime and Punishment. Write an essay to demonstrate how the author's treatment of the topic underpins a theme or central idea of his novel. Provide specific textual evidence, including carefully chosen quotations from the text, to support your analysis.

    Worksheet 8. Final Assessment Rubric provides a tool for both student writing and teacher evaluation.

    Extending the Unit

    • Find and examine a significant example of situational or dramatic irony in the novel. Then write an essay in which you explain how that irony functions within the story as a whole.
    • Make a list of different crimes that you see in the novel. You can interpret the idea of crime very broadly: so, for example, Luzhin’s attempt to ruin Sonia by accusing her of theft can be seen as a kind of crime, even though he did nothing punishable by law. Pick two of these crimes and write an essay comparing them. How are these crimes punished? What does the comparison of these two crimes tell us about the social world of Crime and Punishment?
    • Create and present a dramatic monologue from Raskolnikov’s point of view or from that of another character at a specific point in the story. Dress appropriately for your role.
    • Analyze similarities and differences between the ways two or more translators render a specific section of the text; consider how differences affect readers’ responses.

    Additional Resources

    Translations for Crime and Punishment

    • For many years, the translation by Constance Garnett, published by The Modern Library

    (Random House), has been a classroom staple. It is also available online;

    • Some commentators prefer the translation by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhovsky, which sticks very close to Dostoevsky’s original Russian. It is also published by Random House (1991);
    • Still another popular choice is the translation by David McDuff (Penguin Books, 2003).

    Film adaptations of Crime and Punishment

    Several recent film adaptations of the novel are available, some more useful than others. Selected clips from one or more versions can be more useful than showing an entire film.

    • Crime and Punishment (2002): film adaptation produced by Crime and Punishment Productions Limited, starring Crispin Glover, John Hurt, Vanessa Redgrave, and Margot Kidder;
    • Crime and Punishment (2002): television serial produced by the BBC, starring John Simm and Ian McDiarmid;
    • Crime and Punishment (1998): television movie produced by Hallmark Entertainment and NBC Studios, starring Patrick Dempsey, Ben Kingsley, and Julie Delpy.

    The Lessons

    • Lesson 1: Dualistic Portrayal of Characters

      Created January 12, 2015
      Portrait of the Writer Fyodor Dostoyevsky, 1972, Vasily Perov

      Students examine the divided nature of Raskolnikov’s character and personality. Then they uncover the divided natures of other characters—a fact that becomes increasingly evident as the novel progresses to go beyond character analysis to comprehend Dostoyevsky’s underlying themes. What does the novel imply about human nature? Dostoevsky clearly perceived that people are neither simple nor easily classified; they are often torn in opposite directions by forces both inside of and outside of themselves, sometimes with catastrophic results.

    • Lesson 2: Man and Superman

      Created January 12, 2015
      Portrait of the Writer Fyodor Dostoyevsky, 1972, Vasily Perov

      Students examine the theory Man vs. Superman as it is revealed in several scenes within the novel and tackle the larger questions it bring up: Are humans really divided into two distinct categories, the ordinary and the extraordinary? Is this division a figment created by an overactive intellect? What did Dostoevsky think? Then they learn the theory differs radically from Dostoyevsky’s fictional reality—and reader’s—uncover yet another split in the world of the novel, one between intellect and emotion/instinct.

    • Lesson 3: Societal Schisms and Divisions

      Created January 12, 2015
      Portrait of the Writer Fyodor Dostoyevsky, 1972, Vasily Perov

      Students examine the novel’s societal setting, which is also fraught with division. Crime and Punishment is more than just a demonstration of the idea that crime does not pay, it is a vivid depiction of societal injustice. For example, Dostoyevsky’s mid-nineteenth century Russia offered women narrowly circumscribed roles, most often resulting in their dependence on men and/or a life of poverty. The negative effects of several other societal divisions raise additional questions.

    The Basics

    Grade Level

    9-12

    Subject Areas
    • Literature and Language Arts > Place > Modern World
    • Literature and Language Arts > Place > Other
    • Literature and Language Arts > Genre > Novels
    Skills
    • Auditory analysis
    • Compare and contrast
    • Creative writing
    • Critical analysis
    • Critical thinking
    • Cultural analysis
    • Debate
    • Essay writing
    • Interpretation
    • Literary analysis
    • Representing ideas and information orally, graphically and in writing
    • Summarizing
    • Textual analysis
    • Writing skills
  • Lesson 1: Dualistic Portrayal of Characters

    Created January 12, 2015
    Portrait of the Writer Fyodor Dostoyevsky, 1972, Vasily Perov

    Students examine the divided nature of Raskolnikov’s character and personality. Then they uncover the divided natures of other characters—a fact that becomes increasingly evident as the novel progresses to go beyond character analysis to comprehend Dostoyevsky’s underlying themes. What does the novel imply about human nature? Dostoevsky clearly perceived that people are neither simple nor easily classified; they are often torn in opposite directions by forces both inside of and outside of themselves, sometimes with catastrophic results.

    Standing Together logo

    Standing Together: The Humanities and the Experience of War

    Standing Together is an NEH initiative to promote understanding of the military experience and to support returning veterans through films, literature, drama, discussion, and more.

  • Lesson 1: Language Analysis Based on Stave 1

    Created October 30, 2014

    In this lesson, part of a unit on Charles Dickens's A Christmas Carol, students focus on the first stave of the novel as they identify the meanings of words and phrases that may be unfamiliar to them. This activity facilitates close examination of and immersion in the text and leads to an understanding of Scrooge before his ghostly experiences.

    Lesson Plans: Grades 6-8
    Curriculum Unit

    Using Textual Clues to Understand “A Christmas Carol” (3 Lessons)

    Created October 30, 2014

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    The Unit

    Overview

    Charles Dickens painting

    1842 portrait of Charles Dickens.

    Credit: By Francis Alexander (1800–1880) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.

    “I have endeavored in this Ghostly little book, to raise the Ghost of an idea, which shall not put my readers out of humour with themselves, with each other, with the season, or with me.”

    — Charles Dickens, preface to A Christmas Carol

    Charles Dickens first published A Christmas Carol December 1843 and the book won instant popularity. The proliferation of film adaptations during the holiday season continually demonstrates the timeless appeal of this story. Its brevity and memorable characters make it a good choice to introduce young students to Victorian fiction and to facilitate discussion of themes that transcend philosophical and religious differences. Dickens tells the story of a man transformed from cynical and mean-spirited loneliness to generosity and peace, conveying insights echoed by countless stories, poems, films, and popular adages, e.g., “I never saw a hearse with a luggage rack,” and “You can’t take it with you.”

    In Lesson 1, students focus on the first stave of the novel as they identify the meanings of words and phrases that may be unfamiliar to them. This activity facilitates close examination of and immersion in the text and leads to an understanding of Scrooge before his ghostly experiences. In Lesson 2, students examine Scrooge’s experiences with the Ghosts of Christmas Past, Present, and Future and discover how Dickens used both direct and indirect characterization to create a protagonist who is more than just a stereotype. In Lesson 3, students focus on stave 5 as they identify and articulate themes that permeate the story.

    Guiding Questions

    • How does Dickens reveal the changing character of Ebenezer Scrooge, including personality and motivation?
    • How does Dickens’ use of connotation, denotation, and direct and indirect methods of characterization present and extend the novel’s themes?

    College and Career Readiness Standards

    Anchor standard

    CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.1
    Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.

    Grade level standards

    CCSS ELA Literacy RL 8.1
    Cite textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text

    CCSA ELA Literacy RL 8.2
    Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to the characters, setting and plot; provide an objective summary of the text

    CCSS ELA Literacy RL 8.4
    Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts

    Background

    When Charles Dickens first published A Christmas Carol in December 1843, it won instant popularity with the reading public. Critics note that in the novel Dickens virtually invented the holiday season as many celebrate it today. In earlier times the observance of the twelve days of Christmas was limited to wealthy courts. The Puritan takeover during the seventeenth century involved the suppression of all Christmas festivities, and they did not return with the restoration of the monarchy. The novel presents Christmas as a time for charity, caroling, good will, and celebration within nuclear families. The story’s immediate popularity demonstrates that this vision had tremendous appeal for people early during the Victorian Era.

    A Christmas Carol came relatively early in Dickens’ career, only ten years after his first published story. The Pickwick Papers was published in serial form in 1836–1837, followed quickly by Oliver Twist and Nicholas Nickleby.  Meanwhile, Dickens had married and begun what would become a large family. The small boy forced to black shoes while his family was in debtors’ prison was decades in the past, and Great Expectations was decades in the future.

    A Christmas Carol, regardless of the title, is not a religious text as much as a humanistic one. Church bells do ring, but Dickens emphasizes not religion as much as humanitarianism. As in many of his other works, we see concern with ethics, the right (and wrong) way to live, as well as an awareness of the plight of the poor. Naomi Wood, Kansas State University professor of English, labels it “a compelling story about the Christmas holiday not as a religious observance, but as an aspect of the social contract: the time when those who 'have' experience joy in sharing with those who 'have not.’”  

    Dickens titled his novel A Christmas Carol rather than A Christmas Story. Although the work is clearly not a song, he carried through the metaphor by using divisions he called staves instead of “chapters.” In music and poetry, a stave can be a musical score or a stanza. The novel also capitalizes on Victorian interest in ghost stories and the custom of telling them during the Christmas season.

    This is an excellent choice to introduce young adolescents to Victorian writing and to Charles Dickens in particular, especially just before or during the holiday season when retail pressures can elicit a “Bah, humbug!” from just about anyone. The novel is short enough to be identified sometimes as a novella; it tells a good story; and it stresses themes that transcend all kinds of differences.

    Assessment

    Write an essay discussing three experiences that you think were powerful factors in changing Scrooge’s attitudes and behavior. For each, include specific textual evidence, a description of Scrooge’s responses, and an explanation of the impact on Scrooge.

    Worksheet 4. Evaluation Rubric provides a tool for both student writing and teacher evaluation.

    Extending the Unit

    • Have students exercise their creativity in one of the following ways by integrating and evaluating content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually as well as in words.
    • Create an illustrated children’s storybook version and include pieces of dialogue and narration from the novel.
    • Write a short story adaptation centered on a different festive occasion such as Fourth of July, St. Patrick’s Day, or the opening game of the baseball season. Include characters who mirror those in Dickens’ novel.
    • Create a series of visual images related to key moments in the text, and accompany the images with captions from the novel.
    • Have students read O. Henry’s “The Gift of the Magi” or John Grisham’s Skipping Christmas and write essays comparing and contrasting the work’s characters, situations, and themes with A Christmas Carol.
    • View one of the many film adaptations of A Christmas Carol or attend a live performance of a dramatic adaptation.  Have students analyze the extent to which the filmed or live production of the story stays faithful or departs from Dickens’ text, evaluating the choices made by the director or actors.
    • Have students research the evolution of Christmas festivities over the centuries, including gift-giving, the legend of Santa Claus, and the use of Christmas trees and Christmas cards. Present your findings in a multi-media presentation. EDSITEment feature, The Gift of Holiday Traditions: Kwanzaa, Hanukkah, and Christmas, provides background on these customs along with links to multiple resources.

    The Lessons

    The Basics

    Grade Level

    6-8

    Subject Areas
    • Literature and Language Arts > Genre > Common Core
    • Literature and Language Arts > Genre > Novels
    • Literature and Language Arts
    Skills
    • Compare and contrast
    • Creative writing
    • Critical analysis
    • Critical thinking
    • Cultural analysis
    • Discussion
    • Essay writing
    • Expository writing
    • Gathering, classifying and interpreting written, oral and visual information
    • Internet skills
    • Interpretation
    • Literary analysis
    • Making inferences and drawing conclusions
    • Representing ideas and information orally, graphically and in writing
    • Summarizing
    • Textual analysis
    • Writing skills
  • Lesson 3: García Márquez’s Nobel Prize Speech: “The Solitude of Latin America”

    Created October 9, 2014

    In this triumph of magical realism, One Hundred Years of Solitude chronicles a century of the remarkable Buendía family’s history in the fictional Colombian town of Macondo. The three lessons presented here explore the fantastic elements of this imaginary world, the real history that lies behind them, and García Márquez’s own philosophical musings on writing about Latin America.

    Peter Whittemore (left), a descendant of Herman Melville, reads from Moby Dick

    A Revival of the American Spirit on the 38th Voyage of the Charles W. Morgan!

    On the occasion of the Charles W. Morgan’s homecoming to New Bedford, Massachusetts (June 2014), a descendent of Herman Melville, Peter Whittemore, acting as one of the 38th Voyagers, delivers an open letter to the world in the form of a “top-gallant salute.” He draws inspiration from his ancestor’s novel, Moby Dick and reflects upon the 38th Voyage of the Morgan as a wake-up call for 21st-century environmentalism.