• The Red Badge of Courage: A New Kind of Realism

    Civil War-era portrait of a Federal soldier.

    The Red Badge of Courage’s success reflects the birth of a modern sensibility; today we feel something is true when it looks like the sort of thing we see in newspapers or on television news.

  • The Red Badge of Courage: A New Kind of Courage

    Civil War-era portrait of a Federal soldier.

    In The Red Badge of Courage, Stephen Crane presents war through the eyes —and thoughts —of one soldier. The narrative’s altered point of view and stylistic innovations enable a heightened sense of realism while setting the work apart from war stories written essentially as tributes or propaganda.

  • To Kill A Mockingbird and the Scottsboro Boys Trial: Profiles in Courage

    The Scottsboro Boys with their lawyer and guards (UPI photo, March, 1933).

    Students study select court transcripts and other primary source material from the second Scottsboro Boys Trial of 1933, a continuation of the first trial in which two young white women wrongfully accused nine African-American youths of rape.

  • Lesson 5: Faulkner's As I Lay Dying: Concluding the Novel

    Portrait of William Faulkner by Carl Van Vechten.

    In this lesson, students discuss interpretations of Faulkner's novel As I Lay Dying as they examine the themes of hope and loss.

  • Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird: Profiles in Courage

    To Kill a Mockingbird: Harper Lee and Mary Badham

    This lesson plan asks students to read To Kill A Mockingbird carefully with an eye for all instances and manifestations of courage, but particularly those of moral courage.

  • Lesson 4: Faulkner's As I Lay Dying: Burying Addie's Voice

    Portrait of William Faulkner by Carl Van Vechten.

    In this lesson, students explore the use of multiple voices in narration and examine the character of Addie Bundren in Faulkner's As I Lay Dying.

  • Lesson 2: Faulkner's As I Lay Dying: Family Voices In As I Lay Dying

    Portrait of William Faulkner by Carl Van Vechten.

    In this lesson, students explore the use of multiple voices in narration and examine the Bundren family through the subjective evidence provided by a multiplicity of characters in Faulkner's As I Lay Dying.

  • Lesson 3: Faulkner's As I Lay Dying: Crossing the River

    Portrait of William Faulkner by Carl Van Vechten.

    In this lesson, students examine the use of multiple voices in narration while also exploring the use of symbolism.

  • Lesson 1: Faulkner's As I Lay Dying: Images of Faulkner and the South

    Portrait of William Faulkner by Carl Van Vechten.

    Students learn more about Faulkner's life and the culture of the South while exploring the use of multiple voices in narration.

  • "Animal Farm": Allegory and the Art of Persuasion

    George Orwell, author of 1984.

    Allegories are similar to metaphors: in both the author uses one subject to represent another, seemingly unrelated, subject. However, unlike metaphors, which are generally short and contained within a few lines, an allegory extends its representation over the course of an entire story, novel, or poem. This lesson plan will introduce students to the concept of allegory by using George Orwell’s widely read novella, Animal Farm, which is available online through the EDSITEment-reviewed web resource Internet Public Library.