• Lesson 4: Victory in the Pacific, 1943–1945

    The dropping of an atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Nagasaki

    The U.S. victory over the Japanese Navy at Midway succeeded in stopping the Axis advance in the Pacific, and by early 1943 the Marines had driven the Japanese from Guadalcanal. This lesson will guide students through the military campaigns of the Pacific theater, tracing the path of the Allied offensives.

  • Lesson 4: FDR and the Lend-Lease Act

    "How lend-lease strikes at the Axis," ca. 1940–45.

    This lesson shows students how broadly the Lend-Lease Act of March 1941 empowered the federal government—particularly the President—and asks students to investigate how FDR promoted the program in speeches and then in photographs.

  • Lesson 3: Victory and the New Order in Europe

    Conference of the Big Three at Yalta makes final plans for the defeat of Germany

    By the beginning of 1944, victory in Europe was all but assured. The task of diplomacy largely involved efforts to define the structure of the postwar world. Why and how did the United States attempt to preserve the Grand Alliance as American diplomats addressed European issues?

  • Lesson 1: How "Grand" and "Allied" was the Grand Alliance?

    President Franklin D. Roosevelt signing the Declaration of War against Japan,  December 8, 1941.

    This lesson plan will survey the nature of what Winston Churchill called the Grand Alliance between the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union in opposition to the aggression of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan.

  • Lesson 2: Legislating Neutrality, 1934–1939

    President Franklin D. Roosevelt tried to keep the U.S. out of World War II as  long as possible.

    Americans in the mid nineteen thirties turned increasingly pessimistic about the possibility of preventing the outbreak of wars through international cooperation and instead moved toward measures designed to prevent the United States from intervening in any foreign war that might occur. In this lesson students examine a series of primary source documents that will help them understand why these laws were passed, and how they were applied in the mid- to late-1930s.

  • Women Aviators in World War II: "Fly Girls"

    Jackie  Cochran, one of America's leading aviators

    This lesson plan explores the contributions of the Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASPs) during World War II, and their aviation legacy.

  • Lesson 3: Victory in Europe, 1944–1945

    American troops landing at Normandy, June 6, 1944.

    Although the campaign in the Mediterranean was successful in forcing Italy out of the war, Allied military planners by late 1943 had concluded that it would not be enough to defeat Nazi Germany. This lesson plan will focus on the overall strategy pursued by the Allies in the final months of World War II in Europe.

  • Lesson 4: The Great Debate: Internationalists vs. Isolationists

    Senator James Byrnes of South Carolina defended the U.S.'s aiding of Great  Britain prior to America's entry into World War II.

    President Roosevelt's proposal to provide direct military aid to Great Britain launched a nationwide debate over foreign policy that lasted through most of 1941. Should the United States observe its traditional policy of non-involvement in European affairs (to which World War I had been a notable exception), or should the United States take whatever steps were necessary (up to and, perhaps, including direct involvement in the war) to prevent a German victory?In this lesson students are introduced to the main arguments used by both sides in this great debate. Through the use of an interactive map and primary source documents, students trace the events of 1941, and think critically about what foreign policy would have best served national interests.

  • Lesson 1: Turning the Tide in the Pacific, 1941–1943

    American dive bombers over Midway. The Battle of Midway was crucial to turning  the tide in the Pacific war against Japan.

    In December 1941, Japanese armed forces launched a massive offensive, attacking targets as far East as Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, and as far West as Burma. This lesson plan will focus on the overall strategies pursued by the Japanese and the Allies in the initial months of World War II in Asia and the Pacific.

  • Lesson 4: The New Order for "Greater East Asia"

    "At the White House, President Truman Announces Japan's Surrender." Abbie Rowe,  Washington, DC, August 14, 1945.

    For American diplomacy, the war against Japan was not just about the destruction of Japanese supremacy in the Pacific, China, and Southeast Asia. The ultimate issue was just what would replace Japan's imperial design of a "Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere." This lesson plan focuses on two major postwar problems—the future of China and (using French Indochina as a test case) the future of Western imperialism in Southeast Asia.