• Norman Rockwell, Freedom of Speech—Know It When You See It

    19a. Norman Rockwell (1894–1978)

    This lesson plan highlights the importance of First Amendment rights by examining Norman Rockwell’s painting of The Four Freedoms. Students discover the First Amendment in action as they explore their own community and country through newspapers, art, and role playing.

    Lesson Plans: Grades K-2
    Curriculum Unit

    The Alphabet is Historic (4 Lessons)

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    The Unit

    Overview

    Alphabet is Historic: Curriculum Unit image

    The evolution of our current western alphabet.

    Credit: EDSITEment

    The youngest and newest writers often have a deep interest in the origin of writing itself. The lessons in this curriculum unit will introduce young students to the history of our alphabet. First, students will learn about the Phoenicians, the great trading people of the eastern Mediterranean who invented many of our letters. We'll follow as the Phoenicians taught their alphabet to the ancient Greeks, and follow again as the Greeks taught their alphabet to the Romans. Finally, we'll learn that the Romans left their alphabet to us, and that we use the Roman alphabet to write in English.

    By following this path through history we can establish a connection between these ancient civilizations and the youngest writers. We can show them that they are using the alphabet that was developed so long ago. The three lessons in this curriculum unit include short historical introductions to the Phoenicians, Greeks, and Romans, hyper-links to selected illustrations, and suggestions for activities.

    Guiding Questions

    • Where does the alphabet come from?

    This is one of those questions, like “Why is the sky blue?” through which children try to define something basic and important in their world. Although the very first writing is lost in the mists of time, we can trace the development of our alphabet for about the last 3,000 years.

    Learning Objectives

    As the students learn the history of the alphabet they will be introduced to three important ancient civilizations, and to the idea of cultural inheritance. The concept of chronological order will be reinforced through an emphasis on the fact that each group of people passed on the alphabet. In addition to learning history, the children will practice language arts and art skills.

    After completing this unit, students will be able to do the following:

    • Describe how first the Phoenicians, then the Greeks, and finally the Romans passed down the alphabet.
    • Compare some letters from the earlier alphabets to our alphabet, and talk about how the alphabet changed over time.
    • Recognize the Mediterranean area on a map and show that the Phoenicians, Greeks, and Romans came from the Mediterranean area.
    • Describe two or three basic features of each of these cultures.
    • Complete some short writing and art assignments based on the alphabets.

    Preparation Instructions

    Read through each of the lessons and select or download the necessary materials.

    The Lessons

    The Basics

    Grade Level

    K-2

    Subject Areas
    • Foreign Language > Ancient > Ancient Greek
    • Literature and Language Arts > Place > Ancient World
    • Art and Culture > Subject Matter > Archaeology
    • Foreign Language > Ancient > Latin
    • History and Social Studies > World > The Ancient World (3500 BCE-500 CE)
    • Art and Culture > Medium > Visual Arts
    • Literature and Language Arts > Place > Other
    Skills
    • Compare and contrast
    • Critical thinking
    • Discussion
    • Gathering, classifying and interpreting written, oral and visual information
    • Historical analysis
    • Making inferences and drawing conclusions
    • Map Skills
    • Representing ideas and information orally, graphically and in writing
    • Visual analysis
    Lesson Plans: Grades 9-12
    Curriculum Unit

    Composition in Painting: Everything in its right place (4 Lessons)

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    Overview

    Composition in Painting

    Jacques Louis David, The Death of Socrates

    Credit: Wikimedia Commons

    Why is it that when we walk into a museum so many people gravitate towards the same images? What is it that many of us find so sublime about a Caravaggio? Why do we often feel pulled into the domestic calm of a Vermeer? What is it about the rich and compact images of Frida Khalo that we find so irresistible? How do we know when a painting, a drawing, or a print "works"?

    While it does not explain entirely the beauty—or the popularity—of any paintings or group of paintings, one of the most important components of paintings and drawings is its composition. The composition—the way in which a painting is composed and the way in which the painting's elements work together to form a coherent whole—is key to the success of a work of art in conveying its message and visually "hanging together." The composition is an important part of the foundation of the paintings we find so compelling. In this curriculum unit students will be introduced to composition in the visual arts, including design principals, such as balance, symmetry, and repetition, as well as one of the formal elements: line.

    Guiding Questions

    • What is composition in the visual arts, and how does contribute to the success of an art work?
    • How do the artist's compositional choices convey feeling, tone, or information to the viewer?
    • How do compositional elements guide the viewer's eye around the canvas?

    Learning Objectives

    • Define composition in the visual arts
    • Identify elements of the composition in a variety of art works
    • Explain how the artist's compositional choices work to guide the viewer's eye to important elements of the image
    • Discuss ways in which the compositional structure of a work affects the tone of the painting, or communicates information or emotional content to the viewer
    • Explain how each of these elements works to make the work successful as a painting

    Preparation Instructions

    You may wish to begin preparing for this lesson by visiting the EDSITEment-reviewed web resource The Metropolitan Museum of Art. This web site contains a guide for learning about and identifying composition, perspective, light, color, form, motion, and proportion in Emmanuel Leutze's well known painting, George Washington Crossing the Delaware.

    Composition in the visual arts is a large topic and this curriculum unit is only an introduction. There are some aspects of composition that will not be covered in this unit, but it should help students to begin to think about the kinds of choices that artists make when placing objects, figures, and natural elements in their work. The placement of objects within the picture plane is not an arbitrary act, but is the result of calculated decisions. This curriculum unit will assist students in beginning to identify some of those decisions. In addition, this lesson will help students begin to engage with the question of why artists make particular decisions.

    One of the main purposes of focusing on the composition of a piece is to help students begin to read the information contained within the paintings they are viewing. Quite often artists structure the compositions of their paintings in ways that will bring the viewer's attention to the most important elements of the painting. Works of art are often encoded with a series of visual messages, some of which are readily accessible to all audiences, and some of which are only available to smaller, more knowledgeable audiences. This lesson should help students gain an awareness of one of the most important elements of a work of art—its composition—as an initial step towards accessing more of the information within a work of art.

    • Review each lesson plan and the curriculum unit overview. Locate and bookmark suggested materials and websites. Download and print out documents you will use and duplicate copies as necessary for student viewing.
    • Familiarize yourself with the terms that will be studied in this lesson, as they refer to the visual arts. The most important definition for this lesson is:
      • Composition: In a painting, generally refers to how the parts of the image relate to each other to create a whole. This includes the placement of objects on the picture plane, the relationship of these objects to each other, and how both of these components contribute to the expressive content of the image. It also includes how line, color, motion, proportion— everything that makes up the work of art—comes together to produce a coherent whole.

      Some additional definitions which you and your students may find helpful are:

      • Focal point: The part of the art work that draws the viewer's attention.
      • Line: When your students think of "line" they will most likely imagine the outline of objects. That definition refers to contour lines. Compositional lines in the visual arts commonly refers to the actual or implied line which move a viewer's eye around the painting. These lines may be formed by the underlying structure of a figure or object, or by a figure's line of sight. Compositional lines may reflect the shape of an article of clothing, a building, or a landscape feature, just to name a few sources. The line of an object or figure often conveys a sense of the movement or even the character of that figure.
      • Proportion: Refers to the size relationship of parts of the painting's composition, or to the size of each object relative to the other objects within the same image.
      • Motion: An artist implies motion in images through various techniques and devices- such as vigorous brushstrokes- to convey the sense that an object or figure is moving across or through the picture plane.
      • Perspective: Refers to the way in which the artist creates a sense of depth within the space of a painting. Artistic means for creating perspective include linear perspective and aerial perspective or atmospheric perspective. In European and American painting, beginning in the Renaissance period, linear perspective became a common technique used by artists. Objects, buildings, people, and spaces drawn using linear perspective appear to exist in three-dimensional space—rather than simply along the flat plane of the painting's surface- by having the lines of the drawing converge towards a vanishing point. These converging lines can be seen in the walls of the buildings in the following painting:
    • Note: All diagrams, line drawings, and questions for this lesson are available for students to download directly through the Student LaunchPad for the lesson. You can access all of the diagrams for each lesson plan directly through the Teacher LaunchPad. You should read through the Student LaunchPad in preparation for teaching each lesson.
    Websites

    The Lessons

    • Lesson 1: Composition Basics

      Composition Basics Too, Adoration of Magi

      In this first lesson of the curriculum unit Composition in Painting: Everything in its right place, students will begin by learning the definition of composition in the visual arts and some of its most basic components.

    • Lesson 2: Symmetry and Balance

      Composition Basics

      Artists often structure their compositions in particular ways in order to convey a sense of harmony in the picture.  Students will use the viewing experiences of the activities in the first lesson of this curriculum unit, Composition Basics as the basis for discussing some additional compositional techniques found in the images in this activity.

    • Lesson 3: Repetition in the Visual Arts

      Repetition in the Visual Arts

      When we view paintings and other works of art our eyes usually move across the surface of the canvas, hitting on various points, objects, and figures in the picture. In this lesson students will learn about repetition, one of the techniques artists often use to highlight important elements within a painting's composition, and to move a viewer's eye around the canvas, from highpoint to highpoint.

    • Lesson 4: Line in the Visual Arts

      Line in the Visual Arts

      In this lesson students will learn about one of the most important elements in painting and drawing: line. Students will learn how line is defined in the visual arts, and how to recognize this element in painting.

    The Basics

    Grade Level

    9-12

    Subject Areas
    • Art and Culture > Medium > Visual Arts
    Skills
    • Critical thinking
    • Interpretation
    • Logical reasoning
    • Visual art analysis
    Lesson Plans: Grades 9-12
    Curriculum Unit

    Horse of a Different Color: An Introduction to Color in the Visual Arts (1 Lessons)

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    Overview

    The names of the primary and secondary colors are often among the first words we learn to speak and write. Even very young children can identify the red object in a painting, or the blue object in a photograph, but there is a lot more to color than initially meets the eye.

    In this curriculum unit students will be introduced to the importance and effect of color in the visual arts. Why do artists use particular colors in their compositions? The activities in this lesson will guide students towards a greater understanding of the ways in which color can focus the viewer's attention, give the illusion of depth in a two-dimensional medium, and affect the tone and mood of an artwork.

    Guiding Questions

    How do artists use color to create effects of perception and to set the tone of an artwork?

    Learning Objectives

    • Explain the ways in which color is used to create a sense of depth in a two dimensional space
    • Identify the ways in which the artist uses color to draw the viewer's attention to points within the composition
    • Discuss the effect of color on the tone and mood of an artwork

    Preparation Instructions

    This unit is one of a series of EDSITEment lessons designed to help students gain the skills to better understand the visual arts. You may wish to teach this unit alone or as part of the series of EDSITEment lessons that includes the curriculum unit Everything in its Right Place: An Introduction to Composition in the Visual Arts and Portraits, Pears, and Perfect Landscapes: Investigating Genre in the Visual Arts.

    There are a number of definitions that will be helpful for teaching this lesson:

    • Primary colors include red, blue, and yellow. They are considered primary because they cannot be created by mixing other colors. In this sense they are like prime numbers, which cannot be divided into smaller numbers, such as the number three.
    • Secondary colors include orange, green, and purple or violet and are created by mixing the primary colors in specific combinations. For example, green is a mix of yellow and blue; orange a mix of red and yellow; and violet a mix of blue and red.
    • Hue: the visual property that gives a color its name by distinguishing that color from others on the color spectrum. For example, the property of having a blue-green hue distinguishes that color from another, red-orange color. Black and white do not have hue, although they can have value—darkness or lightness.
    • Complementary colors are the colors that sit on the opposite sides of the color spectrum when the spectrum is shown as a circle. Thus, green and red are complementary colors, as are orange and blue, and yellow and violet. When complementary colors are mixed they create a neutral tone; when they are next to each other, they highlight each other.
    • Color Schemes are harmonious combinations of colors within a work of art. These vary and may include monochromatic (lighter and darker variations of the same color); analogous (small range of colors next to each other on the color wheel, such as variations of blue and violet); or complimentary (colors across from each other on the color wheel such as red and green); among others.

    Additional color definitions include:

    • Key or Value: lightness or darkness of a color relative to one another. White is the highest key or value, while black is the lowest.
    • Saturation: purity of hues when compared to the way the hue appears on the color spectrum.

    The Lessons

    The Basics

    Grade Level

    9-12

    Subject Areas
    • Art and Culture > Medium > Visual Arts
    Skills
    • Critical thinking
    • Discussion
    • Interpretation
    • Logical reasoning
    • Making inferences and drawing conclusions
    • Visual art analysis
    Lesson Plans: Grades K-2
    Curriculum Unit

    The Alphabet is Historic (1 Lessons)

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    The Unit

    Overview

    The youngest and newest writers often have a deep interest in the origin of writing itself. The lessons in this curriculum unit will introduce young students to the history of our alphabet. First, students will learn about the Phoenicians, the great trading people of the eastern Mediterranean who invented many of our letters. We'll follow as the Phoenicians taught their alphabet to the ancient Greeks, and follow again as the Greeks taught their alphabet to the Romans. Finally, we'll learn that the Romans left their alphabet to us, and that we use the Roman alphabet to write in English.

    By following this path through history we can establish a connection between these ancient civilizations and the youngest writers. We can show them that they are using the alphabet that was developed so long ago. The three lessons in this curriculum unit include short historical introductions to the Phoenicians, Greeks, and Romans, hyper-links to selected illustrations, and suggestions for activities.

    Guiding Questions

    “Where does the alphabet come from?” This is one of those questions, like “Why is the sky blue?” through which children try to define something basic and important in their world. Although the very first writing is lost in the mists of time, we can trace the development of our alphabet for about the last 3,000 years.

    Learning Objectives

    As the students learn the history of the alphabet they will be introduced to three important ancient civilizations, and to the idea of cultural inheritance. The concept of chronological order will be reinforced through an emphasis on the fact that each group of people passed on the alphabet. In addition to learning history, the children will practice language arts and art skills.

    After completing this unit, students will be able to:

    • Describe how first the Phoenicians, then the Greeks, and finally the Romans passed down the alphabet.
    • Compare some letters from the earlier alphabets to our alphabet, and talk about how the alphabet changed over time.
    • Recognize the Mediterranean area on a map and show that the Phoenicians, Greeks, and Romans came from the Mediterranean area.
    • Describe two or three basic features of each of these cultures.
    • Complete some short writing and art assignments based on the alphabets.

    Preparation Instructions

    Read through each of the lessons and select or download the necessary materials. A short list of necessary materials is given in the “Preparing to Teach this Lesson” section of each lesson.

    The Basics

    Grade Level

    K-2

    Subject Areas
    • Foreign Language > Ancient > Ancient Greek
    • Literature and Language Arts > Place > Ancient World
    • Art and Culture > Subject Matter > Archaeology
    • Foreign Language > Ancient > Latin
    • History and Social Studies > World > The Ancient World (3500 BCE-500 CE)
    • Art and Culture > Medium > Visual Arts
    • Literature and Language Arts > Place > Other
    Skills
    • Compare and contrast
    • Critical thinking
    • Gathering, classifying and interpreting written, oral and visual information
    • Historical analysis
    • Making inferences and drawing conclusions
    • Map Skills
    • Representing ideas and information orally, graphically and in writing
    • Writing skills