July 9

Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution ratified as one of the Reconstruction Amendments

July 9, 1868

Related Lessons

  • Lesson 1: The Battle Over Reconstruction: The Aftermath of War
    Lesson Plan / History & Social Studies
    Lesson 1: The Battle Over Reconstruction: The Aftermath of War

    This lesson covers two essential aspects of Reconstruction: the condition of the southern states at the close of the war and Lincoln’s plan for restoring them to the Union. In examining the conditions of the southern states, students consider both the physical conditions (i.e., the impact of the devastation of war) and the political condition of these states (i.e., what was the proper relationship between southern states and the Union upon their surrender at Appomattox?)

  • Lesson 2: The Battle Over Reconstruction: The Politics of Reconstruction
    Lesson Plan / History & Social Studies
    Lesson 2: The Battle Over Reconstruction: The Politics of Reconstruction

    In reviewing events, documentary evidence, and biographical information, students come to understand the complex nature of political decision-making in the United States. In this lesson, they consider the momentous questions facing the country during the Reconstruction debate by weighing the many factors that went into the solutions offered. Students also think critically as they consider whether and how other solutions might have played out.

American writer, Soviet spy, and anti-communist Whittaker Chambers dies

July 9, 1961

Related Lessons

  • Lesson 2: The House Un-American Activities Committee
    Lesson Plan / History & Social Studies
    Lesson 2: The House Un-American Activities Committee

    In the late 1940s and early 1950s, relations between the United States and the Soviet Union had deteriorated to the point of "cold war," while domestically the revelation that Soviet spies had infiltrated the U.S. government created a general sense of uneasiness. This lesson will examine the operations of House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) in the late 1940s.

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